????? ?????? ?? Transcutaneous ???? ???? ????? (taVNS): ??????, ?????, ???????

* These authors contributed equally
Neuroscience
 

Summary

????? ????????? ?? ??????, ????? ???????, ?????? ????? ?? transcutaneous ???? ???? ????? (taVNS) ?? ????? ??????? ???????.

Cite this Article

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Badran, B. W., Yu, A. B., Adair, D., Mappin, G., DeVries, W. H., Jenkins, D. D., George, M. S., Bikson, M. Laboratory Administration of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS): Technique, Targeting, and Considerations. J. Vis. Exp. (143), e58984, doi:10.3791/58984 (2019).

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Abstract

?? ??????? ???? ????? (VNS) ?????? ?????? ??????? ????, ????????? ??????? neuromodulatory ?????? ??? transcutaneous ???? ???? ????? (taVNS). ?????? cervically ????? VNS, taVNS ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????. taVNS ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? VNS ???? ????, ????, ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????. ???? ??? ??????? taVNS ?????, ??? ?? ??????? ????, ???????, ????? ???? ????? ? ????? ?? ????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? (PT), ????? ????? taVNS.

Introduction

???? ???????? X, ?????? ???? ??? ?????, ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ????? ????????, ????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????, ???? (???? 1)1. ???? ????? (VNS) ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? (IPG) ??????? ?? ????2. ????? VNS ????-fda ?? ???????? ???-?????? ???????, ???? ???? ?????, ?? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????. ?????? ????? ???? ?? VNS ??????, ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? (??? ????, ??? ????) ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? 25 ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???3 .

???????, ?????? ???? ?? ??????? VNS ?????? transcutaneous ???? ???? ????? (taVNS)4. taVNS ???? ????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????? (ABVN), ??? ???? ?? ?? innervates ?? ????? ???????5. ????? ????? ??????, ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ?? ????6,7,8, ????? ???????, ????? ?????? ??????? ??????9,10, ? ?????? ??????????7,11,12,13 ?????????? ??????. taVNS ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ??????????14,15 ??????? ??????16,17,18. ??? ???? ?????? taVNS, ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? VNS ????? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????19, 20 , 21, ???????22, ????23?24,??????25.

??????, taVNS ???? methodologically ????? ???? ????? transcutaneous ?????? ????? (?????) ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????26. ????? ??? ?-tavns ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ????? innervated ?? ??? ABVN5. ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????27, ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? (tragus), ?? conchae cymba. ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????, ???? ????? ??? ABVN ??????? ?????? (???? 2). ???????, ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????, ?? ??? ????? ?????. ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????, ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? (???? ????: 250-500 μs, ??????: 10 – 25 ???), ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? (< 5 ???). ????? ??????? ????? ??-??? ???????? ?????? ? ???????, ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? (PT). ??' ????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????, ???? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??-??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? (?????) ?????? ??? ? ??.

taVNS ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????. ?????? ????? ?? taVNS ?? ?????????, ?? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????. ??? ??????? taVNS ????? ????? ?? ????? ???????, ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? ????, ????? ?????? ????? ???? (????? ??? ' 2018) ????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????. ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????, ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? taVNS ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? taVNS ???????.

Protocol

???????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? taVNS ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? (tragus) ?????? ????? ????? 8 ? ? ????? ???????? ????. ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ????'? cymba. ?? ????? ?????? ??? IRB ?????? ??-??? ???? ???? ???? ??????? (HRPP) ??????? ???? ??? ????.

1. ??????

  1. ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? taVNS ?????? (???? 3). ????? taVNS ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???????. ????? ???? (???? ?????) ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? 5 ??? ????.
  2. ???? taVNS, ????? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ???? (??, Ag/AgCl, ???) ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?'? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? (??? ???? ?? ??????). ???????, ????? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ???. ????? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????, ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???.
  3. ????? ????? ?? ???? script ????? (??? ???? ?? ??????) ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????. ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? (mA), ???? ???? (μs), ??? (Hz), ????? (On/Off ????, s), ??? ????? (???).
  4. ????? ??????? ???? ?????? (??????? ?????????? 70%) ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????????? ?????. ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ????, ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????.

2. ????? ??????? ???? ????

  1. ????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? taVNS ?????? ?????: ??? 18-70, ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????, ??? ????? ????? ???????, ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????, ?? ??????.
  2. ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????: ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????, ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??, ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????????, ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ????.
  3. ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????.
  4. ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??????. ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????, ??? ?????. ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ?????, ???? ?????? ???, ?????, ?????, ????? ??????.
  5. ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????, landmarked ??? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? tragus. ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? tragus (???? 4).
  6. ????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ????, ?? ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????.

3. ????? ????? ?? ????????

  1. ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???, ??? ????? ???? ????. ??? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????. ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????????. ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????, ??? ???? 3.2.
  2. ?????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ????? ????. ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????. ???? 8 ? ? ???? ????? ????????, ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??????. ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? < 1 ? ? ???? ?? ??? ?????????.
  3. ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? (???????? ???? ?????: ?????, ???????? ????/?????: ?????). ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? — ?????? (???? ????? ????) ??? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????????. ?????? (???? ????/?????) ???? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? tragus. ?????? ????????, ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????.
  4. ???? ????????? ????? ?? ??? tragus ?? ????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????????, ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? tragus ??????.
    ????: ?? ????? ????? ????????, ???? ????????? ?? ???? ????? (??? ????). ???????, ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? (??? ?????).
  5. ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????????? ????? ????? ????, ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????-????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????. ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? (PT) ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????????.

4. ????? ??? ?????? (PT)

????: ?? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? taVNS. ??? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????.

  1. ????? ?? ??' ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? step-up, ?????? ??? ?????? ???????. ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???? 3 mA. ???? ???? ????? 1 ?? ????? taVNS ???? ????? ????? (???? ??? μs 250-500), ??? (25 ???, ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????).
  2. ???? ????? ?? ?? ??? ??????. ?????? ???? ????? "???????" ?? "????" ?????.
    1. ?? ??, ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??-??? 50% ????? ?? ??? 4.2. ?? ??, ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? 50% ????? ?? ??? 4.2.
  3. ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? 4.2 ?? ????? ??????? ?? 4 "??" ??? 4th ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? (????? ???) PT ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ??????.
  4. ????? ?????? ??' ?? ????? ???? ???? 1 ??? ????? ?????? PT.

5. ????? ?????

  1. ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??????, ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????, ???, ??????.
  2. ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? GUI (????, stimDesigner, freeware ??? ?? ??? ??? ???) ????? ?????? ????? ?????? (DAQ) ????? ????? ?????. ?????? ????? ??? TTL ?????? ??????? ?????? (???? 5). ??????? TTL ?????? ??? ??? BNC ???? "????? ?????? ?" ?????. ???? ??????/????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???, ????? (/ ????? ???) ???? ????? (???? 6). GUI ??? ????? ????? ?????, ???? ?? ??? ??? ???.
    1. ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????-?? ???, ???? 200% ?? PT8,9. ??????, ?? PT ??? ???? ????? ????? 0.8 ???, ????? ????? ?? 1.6 mA.
    2. ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ?? 30 – 60 s "??" ?????? ?- 60-120 s "????" ??????, ?? 20%-50% ??????.
    3. ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? (?? ? ???). ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? 30-60 ???? 25% ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????. ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? 12 – 24 h ??? ??????? ?????.
      ????: ?????? taVNS ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????, ?????? ???? ???? (> 40%), ????? ????????, ???????? ?????? ????? ??????.

6. ???? taVNS

  1. ???? ????? ?????, ????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ?????. ????? taVNS, ??? VNS ??????, ????? ?????? ?????8,28, ?? ??????? ?????, ?? ?????, ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ? 0 – 1029.
  2. ??? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????.
  3. ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????.
  4. ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???????.

Representative Results

??? ???? ???? ???? ??????, ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ????. ???? ???? ?????, ??? ?????? ????? (???? 7). ?????? ?????? ? ? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??' ??? ????? ?????? (???? ?????/??-????? ??????????? ???????? ????), ??? ?? ????? ????? (n = 15, 7 ????, ???? ??? 26.5 ± 4.99) PT-100 μs = mA ± 1.1 3.92; 200 μs = 2.24 ± 0.74 ??; 500 μs = 1.24 ± 0.41 mA. ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? 5 ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? 500 μs ???? ???? ???????, ??? ????? ????? 10mA ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? (???? 2). ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ????, ?? ????? ?? 0.1 mA ?????? ????? ?????.

??? ????? ? 200% PT ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ????? (NRS)9,30. ????? NRS ??? ????? ????? ??? ? 0-10 ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????29. ????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???? (NRS < 3 ???? ?? ???? ???? ?????. ???? ????, ???? ????? ????????-???? μs 500 ???? ? 25 ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?????? = ± 1.98 0.83, ??? = 2.17 ± 1.27 (n = 25, 9 ????, ???? ??? 25.16 ± ???? 4.16) (???? 3). ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?????? 25 ???, ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??????30.

??????? ???????? ?? 30 ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? 1-????? ???? 20%-50% ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? 12-15 h ?????12,31. ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? 60 ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? 1 ?????? 8 ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? 24 ???? ?????.

taVNS, ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???, ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????, ??? ???? ????? fMRI ?????, ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? .

Figure 1
???? 1 : ?????? Efferent ???? ?????, ???.?(?) ?????? Efferent ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? (B) ?? ???? ?????, ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????? ???. ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????.

Figure 2
???? 2 : taVNS ????? ?????. ????? ?? ABVN ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????????, landmarked ????? ?? ??? tragus (A1), ?? cymba conchae (A2). ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? (S). ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????.

Figure 3
???? 3 : ??????? ???????- ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? taVNS ?? ????? (A) ????????? ????? ?????, ?'? ????? (B) ???????? ????? ??????, (?) ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? TTL ? (D ) ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????. ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????.

Figure 4
???? 4 : ????? ??????. ?? ???? ????? ?? taVNS ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???????. ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????.

Figure 5
???? 5 : ????? ??? ?? GUI ????? ?????. ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????.

Figure 6
???? 6 : ????? ????? Waveform ??????????. ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????. ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?? waveform ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????. ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????.

Figure 7
???? 7 : ???? ??? ??????-????? ???? ????. ??? ???? ????? ????, ????? ??? ?????? (PT). ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? PT ???? 2 ????? ??? (SD) ?? ????? ??? ?????. ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????.

Table 1
???? 1: ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? (PT). ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??/??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? PT.

Table 2
????? 2: ????? ???? ??????. ????? ?? ????? ?????? ? mA (200% PT) ???? ?? ???? ???? (n = 15).

Table 3
???? 3: PT, ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????. ????? ?? ????? ?????? ? mA (200% PT) ???? ?? ???? ???? (n = 25).

Supplemental File Figure
???? ?????: Freeware GUI ?????? ????????? ??. ??? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????.

Discussion

??? ?? ????? ????, ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? taVNS. ???? ??????????? ??? ???? ???????, ????? ?? ?? ??????? ????? ???? taVNS ??????? ????? ????, ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????, ????? ?? ?????? ?????. ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? taVNS. ????? ???? taVNS ??????? - ??????? ?? ??????: ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??, ??? ???? ?? ?????, ?????? ????? ????????, ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??????. ???? ????? ????? ????, ???? ?? ???? ?????, ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????, ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??, ??????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????. ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????? (LOTES)32. LOTES ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????, ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????. ????? ?????? ?? ?? ?-FDA-?????? plug-in ????? (??? ???? ?? ??????), ?? ??? ???? (< 50 V), ?????? ?????, ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ?????. ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? taVNS. ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????.

??? ??????? taVNS ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????? ??????. ??? ???? (V = IR) ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? (I) ??????? ???? (R). ??????? 20 V ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????. ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????. ????? ??, ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????.

????? ?? taVNS ??? ???? ?????? ??????. ?? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???? – ???? ?? ???. ?? ?????? ??? ???????? taVNS ????????, ?? ???? ?? ????? ????. ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????, ?????, ????? ????13,33,34,35,36,37, 38,39.

???? ??, ??? ???? μs 500 ???? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????9????. ???? ??????, ?? ???? ?? 25 ??? ??? ??? ????, ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? (> 25 ???), ????? ?? ?????? (???? ????? ???????), ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????. ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????, ????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? taVNS.

taVNS ??? ????? ??????? ????? VNS ???????????. taVNS ???? ??? (< $5,000 ???????? ??????? ???????, ???? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????) ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????, ??? ?? ?????? VNS ?? ????? ??????, noninvasively ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? neuromodulation ?- home ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????.

??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?? taVNS ??????. taVNS ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????, ????????, ????? taVNS-???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???????40, ????? ?????? ?????? 41 , 42, ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ????????8,10.

Disclosures

??????? ??? ?????.

Acknowledgments

???? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?? Neuromodulation ??????, NIH/NICHD ???? ???? P2CHD086844 ??? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????. ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? NIH ?? NICHD, ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???????.

Materials

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
70% Isopropyl Alcohol Wipes Any N/A Any alcohol preparation pads used for skin in appropriate.
Constant Current Stimulator (Triggerable) Soterix Medical N/A Stimulator manufactured for custom use by Soterix Medical
Disposable Conductive Electrodes Custom Built N/A Stimulation electrodes are custom built at the City College Neural Engineering Lab (Badran/Bikson)
Matlab Software w/ Stimulation GUI MathWorks N/A MATLAB used for programing pulse pattern
Ten20 Conductive Paste Weaver and Company N/A Conductive paste used for administration of stimulation

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